Keywords: clinical manifestations of AIDS
From end-stage HIV infection is a long and complex process, and HIV-related clinical manifestations are varied in the different stages of this process. “HIV / AIDS diagnostic criteria and principles" (GB16000-1995), the AIDS of the whole process is divided into acute, asymptomatic and AIDS period with reference to the national standard of the People’s Republic of China enacted in 1995.
Usually occurs in about 2 to 4 weeks after the initial HIV infection. Part of the infection by the clinical symptoms of acute HIV viremia and immune system damage. Most patients with clinical symptoms of mild remission for 1 to 3 weeks. The most common clinical manifestations of fever, and may be accompanied by sore throat, night sweats, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rash, joint pain, swollen lymph nodes and neurological symptoms.
This period can be detected in the blood of HIV-RNA and P24 antigen, HIV antibody in only appeared a few weeks after the infection. CD4 + T lymphocyte count a transient decrease in the same time CD4 + / CD8 + ratio can also be inverted. Some patients may have mild neutropenia and thrombocytopenia or abnormal liver function.
Into this period from the acute phase, or no obvious symptoms of the acute phase directly into this period.
The duration of this period is generally 6 to 8 years. Its duration and the number of virus infected type, route of infection, the immune status of the individual differences in nutrient conditions and living habits and other factors. In the asymptomatic period, due to the continuous replication of HIV infected individuals with compromised immune systems, CD4 + T lymphocyte count decreased, while contagious.
Period of AIDS
This period is the final stage of HIV infection. Patients with CD4 + T lymphocyte count decreased, and more <200/mm3 and plasma HIV viral load was significantly higher. This period the main clinical manifestations of HIV-related symptoms, and a variety of opportunistic infections and tumors.
HIV-related symptoms: mainly fever lasting a month or more, night sweats, diarrhea; often more than 10% weight loss. Some patients showed neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as memory loss, mental apathy, personality changes, headache, epilepsy and dementia. It may also appear as persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, which is characterized by: (1) In addition to the groin outside two or two or more parts of the lymph nodes; (2) lymph node diameter ≥ 1 cm, no tenderness, no adhesions; ⑶ duration months or more.
System common opportunistic infections and tumors as follows.
Respiratory: pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis, recurrent bacterial and fungal pneumonia.
The central nervous system: cryptococcal meningitis, tuberculous meningitis, toxoplasmosis encephalopathy, viral meningoencephalitis.
Digestive system: Candida albicans esophagitis, cytomegalovirus esophagitis, enteritis, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter jejuni, and Cryptosporidium enteritis.
Oral: thrush, tongue hairy leukoplakia, recurrent oral ulcers, gingivitis.
Skin: herpes zoster, molluscum contagiosum, genital warts, fungal dermatitis, onychomycosis.
Eye: cytomegalovirus, Toxoplasma retinitis.
Tumors: malignant lymphoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma.
It should be noted that the AIDS of the diverse clinical manifestations, complications are not the same, issued by the prevalence of the disease with local infectious disease closely related to.