Keywords: etiology and pathogenesis of leukemia
The etiology and pathogenesis of human leukemia have not yet fully Ming Liao. Known cause infection factors, ionizing radiation, chemicals, genetic factors and immune dysfunction. Leukemia etiology is currently considered the result of the interaction of all these factors.
First, the radiation damage
Ionizing radiation induced leukemia has been confirmed in animal studies, human-induced leukemia effect obtained from the following facts Tip: early without protection of radiation workers, the incidence of leukemia is 8-9 times higher than the average doctor; ankylosing spondylitis treated with radiation therapy, the incidence of leukemia is 10 times higher than the average person, after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, suffered 30 times the difference between the incidence of leukemia in the radiation areas, with the last being the radiation area residents.
Second, the chemical factors
Known chemical substances that cause leukemia effect, and the wide range of applications such as industrial benzene. Of anticancer agents (especially alkylating agent), drugs bimolane, chloramphenicol, phenylbutazone, stability and sedative drugs, solvents and pesticides can induce leukemia.
Third, the viral factors
Proven, is closely related to chickens, mice, cats, cattle and gibbons and other animals with spontaneous leukemia virus, has been isolated from the leukemia virus, and have proved that such viruses are retroviruses in the electron microscope was C type morphology, it is also known as C-type RNA viruses, cause leukemia mechanism of DNA synthesis by reverse transcriptase role, make integrated into the DNA of the host cell, thereby changing the biological characteristics of the host cell, so that normal stem cells into as malignant cell lines. But in humans over a long period of time and there is no indication that the blood of leukemia patients can infect healthy people caused leukemia. 1980 isolated a new virus (HTLV) and 1976 found Adult T-cell leukemia virus (ATLV) with a virus from the human T-cell leukemia. This is a new breakthrough in the study of human leukemia etiology.
Fourth, genetic factors
The genetic susceptibility leukemia can be inferred by the following facts:
① some high-risk families, the chance of suffering from leukemia between compatriots 4 times higher than the normal population;
(2) children with fraternal twins, a person suffering from leukemia, another person suffering from leukemia and 25% higher than normal;
③ special genetic syndrome, increased incidence of leukemia, such as Down’s syndrome (Down syndrome), Fanconi anemia, hereditary telangiectasia, ataxia, etc..
Despite these possible causative factors, but there is no one factor can fully explain all the circumstances, such as exposure to radiation, leukemia occurred only a tiny minority. Therefore, speculate that the occurrence of leukemia is not a single factor, may be caused by a variety of factors, may be present in patients with certain congenital susceptible qualities, due to the role of external factors to induce the occurrence of leukemia.