Keywords: acute leukemia
Leukemia is a malignant disease of the hematopoietic system, commonly known as “blood cancer" is one of the top ten high incidence of malignancy, which is characterized by a certain type of leukemia cells in the hematopoietic tissue in the bone marrow or other hematopoietic tissue malignant hyperplasia and infiltration in vivo organs, tissue, resulting in normal hematopoietic cells was inhibited, resulting in a variety of symptoms, clinical manifestations, fever, bleeding, anemia, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, characterized. Divided into acute and chronic leukemia is generally based on the natural course of the disease and cells childish cell types into granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes and other types of clinical manifestations have similarities and differences. Chinese medicine and chemotherapy, most up to ease the bone marrow transplant treatment, part of the long-term survival and even cure.
Leukemia patients in China is approximately 3 to 4/100 000 population, the highest incidence of leukemia in pediatric malignancies. According to the survey, of <10-year-old children with leukemia incidence rate was 2.28/10 million, can be any age, a high incidence of male to female. Throughout the year can be the disease, in rural areas than in cities. Over the past decade, the leukemia incidence and mortality in the United States, Japan, Britain and other countries also have an upward trend, there are around 24 million patients with acute leukemia.
Asthenia acute leukemia in medicine “," Blood “," Plague “category.
The exact cause of human leukemia is unknown. Many factors are considered, and the incidence of leukemia. The virus may be the primary factors Additionally, there are ionizing radiation, chemical poisons or drugs, genetic factors.
1 virus viral etiology of human leukemia has decades of history, but so far only adult T-cell leukemia is certainly caused by a virus. Other types of leukemia have not confirmed their viral factors, and is not contagious.
, Ionizing radiation ionizing radiation induced leukemia effect, and its role is related to the radiation dose size and irradiated sites, and a large dose or multiple small doses of radiation have induced leukemia.
Chemicals benzene-leukemia effect affirmed. Benzene-induced acute leukemia acute tablets and erythroleukemia live.
4, some of the genetic factors leukemia incidence and genetic factors.
Acute leukemia in clinical sub-acute myeloid leukemia (Acute myeloblastic leukemia, AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia, ALL)
Onset leukemia abrupt onset or slow, and more rapid onset of child and adolescent psychiatric patients. Common initial symptoms include: fever, anemia, bleeding tendency or significant bone and joint pain. Slow onset persons, mostly elderly and young patients, the disease gradually progress. These patients with progressive fatigue, weakness, pale and flustered shortness of breath after exertion, lack of appetite, weight loss, or unexplained fever as the first symptom. In addition, a small number of patients with convulsions, blindness, toothache, gum swelling, pericardial effusion, lower limbs paraplegia as the first symptom onset.
2, fever and infection
A fever is one of the leukemia, the most common symptoms, and then the disease can occur at different stages and different degrees of heat and hot type. The main reason of the fever infections, including angina, stomatitis, perianal inflammation most commonly, pneumonia, tonsillitis, gingivitis, perianal abscess is more common. Inflammation of the ear can also be seen, enteritis, appendicitis, pyelonephritis, occurrence of sepsis, sepsis and other serious infections also.
B infection pathogens bacteria common in the early stages of disease, mainly Gram-positive cocci. Virus infection is rare but often more dangerous, cytomegalovirus, measles or chicken pox virus infection complicated by pneumonia, should be noted.
Bleeding bleeding is also a common symptom of leukemia, bleeding sites throughout the body, the skin, gums, nasal bleeding is the most common, may also have the retina, ear bleeding and intracranial, gastrointestinal, respiratory and other internal haemorrhage. Women with menorrhagia and more common, but the first symptom. AML, M3 and M5 subtypes is bleeding more serious, especially M3 patient complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and intracranial hemorrhage and death.
4 early, anemia can occur, a small number of cases in the first refractory anemia diagnosed before a few months or years, and later in the development of leukemia. Patients are often accompanied by fatigue, paleness, palpitations, shortness of breath, lower extremity edema and other symptoms. Anemia seen in various types of leukemia, but more common in elderly AML patients, many patients often as the first symptom of anemia.
5, leukemia cell infiltration signs
A, liver, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy
B, the nervous system: the main lesion bleeding and leukemia infiltration
C, bone and joint: bone and joint pain is one of the important symptoms of leukemia, ALL more common.
D, skin; may have two kinds of specific and non-specific skin lesions, the former manifested as rash, pustular, lumps, nodules, erythroderma, exfoliative dermatitis and other common leukemia in adult monocytes, the latter more performance skin ecchymosis, spots, etc..
E, mouth: gum swelling, bleeding, leukemia infiltration more common in AML-M5, serious gum can be extremely hyperplasia, swelling spongiform surface ulceration easy bleeding.
F, heart: the majority of the performance of myocardial leukemia infiltration, hemorrhage and epicardial bleeding, pericardial effusion.
G, kidney: leukemia, kidney disease by up to 40% or more.
H, gastrointestinal system: as nausea, vomiting, lack of appetite, bloating, diarrhea.
I, lung and pleura: infiltration of the alveolar wall and lung clearance can also be infiltrating bronchial, pleural, vascular wall.
J,: uterine, ovarian, testicular, prostate, etc. can be leukocyte infiltration. Female patients often have vaginal bleeding and menstrual irregularities. The male patient may have loss of libido.
1, the clinical symptoms of abrupt fever, progressive anemia or significant bleeding, the whole body aches, fatigue.
2, the signs of skin bleeding spots, sternal tenderness, lymph nodes, liver and spleen enlargement.
A, blood leukocyte always obvious increase (or decrease), there may be primitive or naive cells.
≥ 30% of bone marrow bone marrow nucleated red blood cells accounted for all less than 50% of nucleated cells, primitive cells ≥ 30%, can be diagnosed as acute leukemia; such as bone marrow nucleated red blood cells ≥ 50% of the original cells in non-erythroid cells can be diagnosed as acute erythroleukemia.
A, aplastic anemia;
B, myelodysplastic syndrome;
C, malignant histiocytosis;
D, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Western medicine treatment is chemotherapy, chemotherapy drugs, it is necessary to strengthen support treatment to reduce complications and can make the condition improved to ease the
Treatment is divided into three
1 to induce remission therapy
2, a period of consolidation therapy
3, maintenance therapy
Refractory AML is defined as
1, untreated cases of first-line induction therapy invalid;
2, early relapse within 6 months of first remission;
3, the use of anti-leukemia commonly used mechanism of drug action of new drugs. ALL can choose other options.
【Prognosis and outcome]
From 70% to 90% after treatment of acute leukemia in patients with previously untreated, up to ease the consolidation of Integrative Medicine strengthen up to long-term disease-free survival and even cure. Acute leukemia is a blood disease in Intensive and some cases ineffective due to resistance to chemotherapy, complications and poor prognosis. Should actively to the prevention and treatment of complications, and improve the body’s resistance to disease, in order to save the lives of patients.
[Difficulties and Countermeasures]
One of the difficulties: how to reduce the recurrence of the leukemia in remission
Difficult for some patients to avoid the occurrence of clinical relapse acute leukemia patients in complete remission, This is the doctor-patient mutual concern, and how to prevent recurrence and prolong survival is a major difficulty on the treatment. Should take positive measures for prevention and treatment. The first is to establish the patient’s confidence and overcome the psychological barriers, mentally overcome the disease; encouraged to adhere to the formal treatment, which is to achieve sustained remission, prevent recurrence, prolong the survival of the foundation. However, patients with limited economic conditions, flawed understanding of the disease, clinically easy contempt. Even adhere to a regular treatment, some patients inevitably relapse, and this with the biological characteristics of the patients, the body remnants of minimal residual leukemia cells is closely related to changes in the former to be successfully developed for gene therapy, widely used in clinical, expected from virtually eliminate disease, prevention of recurrence; proceed from the Xiaosha minimal residual disease, to overcome relapse after remission patients often accompanied Qiyinliangxu a symptom, be Botanical Yiqiyangyin, rousing kill residual leukemic cells, prevent and treat recurrence role; to be intermittent take some medicine antidote to further clear its vestiges kill residues evil expected to overcome a certain extent some types of leukemia.
The second difficulty: how to prevent leukemia drug problem
Acute leukemia resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs is the main reason leading to treatment failure, is one of the most difficult problem. Western medicine in clinical calcium antagonists, cyclosporine A alone or combination reversal effect, intravenous pharmacodynamic good but toxic side effects limit the clinical application of Chinese medicine, such as Taibai “Seven immortality" series drugs, Tripterygium glycosides and other drugs in the experimental study shows effective signs can further carry out clinical research, is expected to develop a new drug prevention and treatment resistant, improve efficacy, prevent recurrence. Integrative treatment is clinically more practical approach, the combination of Chinese and Western medicine, multidrug alternating sequential therapy, the impact of high-dose therapy and other methods can be applied to clinical, is expected to overcome the resistance to further improve efficacy.
1, the prevention of exposure to radioactive substances and chemicals such as benzene, should strengthen labor protection, regularly check blood actively prevent complications, the prognosis of acute leukemia.
, Conditioning conditioning of life pay attention to the impact of climate, anti-virus invasion of the body and induce the disease; Avoid contact with some of the poison, even during treatment, should remain positive and optimistic mood, such as phenylbutazone, chloramphenicol, phenytoin;
3, commonly used therapeutic side
A Tim myeloid antichemical drink: deer blood or chicken 30 grams, 60 grams of asparagus. Press: the cook taking informal When with beneficial blood fill marrow function.
B, antipyretic therapeutic side: Digupi Lotion: Digupi, 60 g. Beverage Service: steamed Lu. Digupi sweet, bland, cold.
C, hemostatic therapeutic square: broad beans nectar: bean flowers 100 g. Exposed food: steaming.
D, anti-leukemia: the realgar Zhudan; realgar 23 grams, 2 eggs. Press; were cooked, shelled fresh eggs.
Study progress] Friendly advice: to participate in medical tests:
Western medicine research: go in recent years, application of animal leukemia model to study human leukemia etiology, pathogenesis has important application of physical, chemical and biological system cancer factors induced the different animals leukemia extensive and in-depth study, but leukemia virus The etiology of the most in-depth. Into the 1980s,
The research shows that: the recognition of the onset of the T-cell leukemia (ATL) is caused by leukemia virus (HTLV-I) infection. Therefore, that leukemia as a study of human tumor virus etiology breakthrough in one of the most promising research trends at home and abroad today. TCM etiology and pathogenesis of acute leukemia Yin nothing more pathogenic illness caused by virtual deficiency mixed, or lack of righteousness and exogenous cult poison, or the cult poison exogenous hurt righteousness, leads to evil Yun blood stasis, Phlegm gas knot the evil cross contention and incidence.
The State Medical Cancer Research Institute of Hematology, academic leaders Zhang Linfu treatment, blood lucky star “Kang Ning" rousing disease since the Consumer leukemia research group that chemotherapy equivalent to “the big drug cure, decline of more than half can not be too . Acute leukemia seen in recent years, the vast majority have been receiving chemotherapy, but have not been remission in patients with clinically showed the signs of the school of righteousness damage. Accept Chinese medicine treatment, common looking minimalist, tongue, pale, cool down mood shaped pulse breakdown and, or moisten number, lucky star “Kang Xue Ning" and Taibai “Seven immortality" series herbal treatment, to righting gas, Qing Zi kidney, Guse hemostasis, cooling blood to stop bleeding, able to obtain relief.
The MEDICA medical case ——- Yin accompanied by bleeding within the knot
State Medical Record No. 950568
Surnamed Guo, female, 21 years old. March 4, 1995 the first visit.
Diagnosed as a hospital in Beijing on December 29, 1994 the acute Feilin leukemia (M4) with hospitalization application of three courses of chemotherapy, partial response was discharged. Symptoms: fever, white face, fatigue, Shen Teng, anorexia, bloating, edema, hair loss, swollen lymph nodes, dry red tongue with ecchymosis, rapid pulse astringent.
[Dialectical] Yin blood heat, blood stasis knot.
[Governing Law] clearing away heat, promoting blood circulation.
[Recipe] the Kang Shengxuening V + the Kang Shengxuening adjuvant II (addition-subtraction Sinopodophyllum seven the Taibai flowers, Taibai Ginseng, etc.)
March 10 Second diagnosis: the spirit of the heat back better, the above after serving a total of 18 plus or minus, a decoction day.
March 29 three clinics: serving on the drug 18, all symptoms disappeared, ruddy, better diet, weight gain, grow new hair.
Blood: WBC 7.2 × 109 / L hemoglobin 157g / L, platelets 114 × 109 / L. Above plus or minus Well continue taking it to 1999 without any symptoms, health.
Review: the patients after chemotherapy has not yet reached remission that may cause the vacuity of the card, the treatment of the syndrome of deficiency of blood heat, blood stasis within the knot, so of the subtraction governance peaches seven, Taibai flowers plus to The Dabuyin blood withdrawal Xure.
Second consultation focused on nourishing yin and blood on the basis of strengthening the blood detoxification drug in addition to the blood long body self-security, and then used to righting the exorcism, consolidate the to achieve long-term remission survival. From the Western point of view, Taibai Ginseng, Sinopodophyllum, seven good immunomodulatory effects may promote the generation of IL-2 activated LAK cells. Xin Wen Taibai spend toxic, and the organization hydroxy combined loss of activity of the protein, thereby inhibiting the proliferation of leukemia, so play the role of the treatment of leukemia patients in prolonged remission.
Chinese medicine treatment of leukemia advantage:
1, Chinese medicine syndrome, overall adjustment, improve patient symptoms, improve the body’s resistance to disease, is conducive to the recovery of the patient.
2, Chinese medicine of the chemotherapy drug resistant leukemia attenuated synergies. Integrative Medicine in the treatment of leukemia should strengthen mutually reinforcing. Through the following measures, in order to improve long-term survival and quality of life of leukemia.
A traditional Chinese medicine in the prevention and treatment of side effects of chemotherapy
B, to prevent the occurrence of central nervous system, leukemia (CNS-L) of the. Chemotherapy drugs is not easy through the blood-brain barrier, and folate concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid plasma three times, which will help leukemia cell reproduction, to become a “sanctuary" leukemia, CNS-L occurred in remission, the application of the treatment of traditional Chinese medicine is expected to be focus.
C over the past dozen years, the domestic Chinese medicine in the treatment of acute leukemia research has opened up new avenues, acute promyelocytic leukemia consistently Kang Shengxuening for treatment up to 90% efficiency, the application of dialectical therapy the many leukemia words mitigation, as well as long-term survival.
D, Chinese medicine focuses on the “righting", you can adjust the body functions in order to maximize the kill leukemia cells, and promote apoptosis, to protect normal cells from damage, reduce complications and reduce mortality, weakening the side effects of the chemotherapy drugs. long-term use of traditional Chinese medicine can also reduce the relapse rate.