Keywords: kidney disease

    The kidney is an important organ in the human body, and its main function is to filter the blood, reabsorption and excretion function of the heart to maintain electrolyte and acid-base balance in the human blood: urine concentration function, in order to maintain the water balance; can secrete more kinds of biologically active substances, such as the secretion of prostaglandin, can be adjusted to the renal blood flow and tubular on the re-absorption of the water, salt, and blood flow the prostaglandin can increase in stress situations.

    In addition to prostaglandins, the kidneys also secrete renin, erythropoietin, the kallikrein enzymes and a variety of active substances. Generalized kidney disease refers to diseases of the urinary system, the narrow sense of the kidney disease. Kidney disease, affecting the kidney function, and environmental stability of the body has been damaged; serious kidney dysfunction can cause uremia, a direct threat to the lives of children. To understand the kidney disease, we must first understand the anatomical structure of the urinary system, which comprises:

    (1) the kidneys – is located on both sides of the lumbar spine, and major manufacturers of urine. (2) the ureter – connecting the kidneys and bladder, the urine from the kidneys into the bladder channel.

    (3) bladder – storage of urine.

    (4) the urethra – one one end connected to the bladder, open at one end connected with the in vitro and is excreted in the urine. Kidney disease can be divided into surgical diseases and medical disorders. The former is mostly for congenital malformations, such as polycystic kidney disease, bladder exstrophy, urethral crack, etc., other surgical diseases include urinary tract stones, phimosis, etc., under normal circumstances, are required to carry out the surgery.

    More common medical disorders:

    (1) nephritis — sub-acute nephritis and chronic nephritis. Acute nephritis is the most common form of kidney disease in children, the typical symptoms of edema, little or no urine, hematuria, and hypertension, often before the onset of respiratory tract infection and a history of streptococcal infection.

    (2) nephrotic syndrome – unless there is edema, urine tests in massive proteinuria bubble more than the appearance of urine, blood tests cholesterol, low serum total protein, albumin and globulin ratio inverted.

    (3), urinary tract infection – mainly as urinary frequency, urgency, dysuria, acute phase may have fever, there are a large number of white blood cells in urine tests, should pay close attention to the treatment of this point, otherwise it can cause chronic inflammation caused by repeated infections.