Keywords: winter pneumonia
Whenever the onset of winter, emergency room patients with pneumonia will suddenly increased, patients are mostly children and the elderly. (Small “brother" can also be a late bloomer), experts remind magnitude of temperature changes in this environment, people should pay close attention to the prevention of pneumonia occurred.
■ skillfully identify various types of pneumonia
Pneumonia anatomy divided into lobar pneumonia, bronchial pneumonia and interstitial pneumonia. Can be divided according to the cause of bacterial pneumonia, viral pneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, fungal pneumonia. Among the most common bacterial pneumonia.
Bacterial pneumonia: many acute inflammation of the lungs caused by pneumococcus, and more in the fall and winter, winter, winter and spring onset. Common causes of upper respiratory tract infection, cold. The main pathological changes of alveolar exudative inflammation and consolidation, often isolated leaf lesions, segment distribution, severe lesions can affect the number of leaves. 20-30% of cases occur bacteremia. Suffering from bacterial pneumonia, rapid onset, symptoms include chills, fever, cough, cough rusty sputum and chest pain, some patients have difficulty breathing, purple lips and gastrointestinal symptoms. In severe cases, blood pressure can reduce or even shock, life-threatening. Increase the total number of laboratory tests of blood leukocytes, neutrophils more than 80%, there are large areas of uniform dense shadows in chest X-rays lungs.
Treatment of bacterial pneumonia is the use of antimicrobial drugs, the same time for patients to bed rest, eat easily digestible food, oxygen and for the symptomatic treatment necessary to pay attention to the prevention of complications.
Viral pneumonia: pneumonia caused by the influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, influenza viral pneumonia is the most serious. Viral pneumonia is often secondary to upper respiratory tract infection, pathological changes of interstitial pneumonia, the clinical manifestations of moderate onset symptoms of headache, fatigue, fever, cough, cough, a small amount of phlegm. Heavy tachypnea, increased symptoms, respiratory failure and shock.
Mycoplasma pneumonia: also known as atypical pneumonia, pathogen Mycoplasma pulmonis, more common in children and young adults, can be distributed or small popular. The basic pathological changes suppurative bronchiolitis, the subsequent interstitial pneumonia. The clinical manifestations for most slow onset, early headache, sore throat, muscle aches, fever ,2-3 days later cough, cough small amount of mucus purulent sputum, sometimes bloody, paroxysmal cough as a prominent symptom.
■ pediatric pneumonia heavy Care
In children prone to pneumonia due to low immunity. Winter Pediatric prone to upper respiratory tract infection or infectious diseases such as influenza, scarlet fever, chicken pox, measles, whooping cough, in the case of reduced resistance may be complicated by pneumonia. Children suffering from pneumonia, in addition to doctors active treatment, intensive care is also very important.
To follow the doctor’s orders medication, do not give children the abuse of antibiotic drugs. Although the majority of pneumonia caused by bacteria, but there are a lot of pneumonia caused by the virus, mycoplasma and other pathogens, antibiotic drugs abuse not only reach the therapeutic effect, but also cause various adverse reactions.
Let children quiet rest to relieve breathing difficulties. Every 2-3 hours for children gently turning once the body, so supine, left and right side alternately, and gently pat the back of the sick child, in order to avoid the lungs Commissioner of time pressure, help expectoration and inflammation absorption.
Handling open the window, so that the fresh flow of indoor air, sunny, can reduce disease-causing bacteria in the air, the sun’s ultraviolet sterilization. Meanwhile, to maintain a suitable temperature and humidity of the indoor.
Children’s clothing and bedding is not too thick, overheating will make children irritability induced shortness of breath, increased breathing difficulties. Such as shortness of breath, pillows can be used to back up position in order to facilitate the smooth breathing. Timely removal of children with nasal scabs and nasal secretions, sputum impede children to let children breathe cough up sputum, will not cough sputum to be sucked out, to keep the airway patency.
According to the age of the child characteristics give the nutrient-rich, easy-to-digest food. Children with feeding dairy based, may be appropriate to drink water. Milk may be appropriate to add a little water against a little thin, each feeding less, increasing the number of feed. If choking occurs nostril milk must be promptly removed. Older children eat nutritious, easy to digest, light food, and eat more fruits, vegetables, drink more water. The same time, we must pay close attention to the observation of the child’s spirit, pale, breathing, body temperature and cough and other symptoms and signs of change. If the children have severe wheezing or sudden dyspnea, irritability, and often is the performance of the respiratory mucus obstruction of the respiratory tract, the need for a doctor as soon as possible to deal with.
■ elderly pneumonia characteristic
Winter pneumonia in the elderly than other seasons. Immune function of the elderly relative decline, such as upper respiratory tract infection or flu, it is easy to cause pneumonia; elderly people suffering from diabetes and malignant tumors of many immune hypofunction also easily combined with pneumonia; elderly due to cerebrovascular accidents, trauma, aging bedridden, prone to aspiration pneumonia and hypostatic pneumonia. To know that now a variety of new antibacterial drugs continuously available, but the proportion of elderly people died due to pneumonia remained high, the pneumonia often become the direct cause of death of the elderly.
Elderly people suffering from pneumonia, has the following characteristics. First, the early symptoms are often not obvious. Generally suffering from pneumonia will have a high fever, cough, chest pain, tight gas symptoms, laboratory tests of white blood cells will be significantly higher. Elderly people suffering from pneumonia and sometimes fever obvious not even a fever, cough, chest pain symptoms are not significant laboratory white blood cells did not increased, often difficult to expectorate sputum, resulting in elderly patients often fail to timely treatment, sometimes the diagnosis is not quasi-caused delays or aggravate the disease. Old people are often accompanied by a variety of diseases, such as emphysema, heart disease or high blood pressure, diabetes, suffering from pneumonia easily make attacks and aggravate pre-existing illness or other diseases, and even the early shock, respiratory failure and multiple organ failure in critical situations, to treatment difficult. Bacteria of pneumonia in the elderly is often more complicated, and some elderly people usually love their medication, which makes the disease-causing bacteria to develop resistance of some commonly used antibacterial drugs, thus affecting the therapeutic effect.
Because of elderly people suffering from pneumonia above characteristics, so the family if it is found that the elderly listlessness, poor appetite, difficulty breathing, a slight fever or cough, it is necessary to check taken to the hospital as soon as possible, especially to do chest X-ray. Once diagnosed, the need for early application of effective drug treatment, pay attention to the impact of drugs on the heart, liver, kidney, and systemic support treatment to enable the patient to recover as soon as possible.
■ elderly anti-pneumonia need to enhance physical fitness
Elderly to ensure a balanced diet, adequate nutrition and proper exercise activities to enhance physical fitness.
Indoor abide ventilation when the weather is sunny, the elderly more to outdoor breath of fresh air, more than the sun.
3. According to temperature changes and reasonable change clothes, and prefer to dress warmly and some also can not be cold.
Chronic diseases of the elderly to be active treatment of existing chronic diseases, bedridden elderly patients should be constantly changing position, shot back expectoration, in order to avoid hypostatic pneumonia.
5. Smokers to be resolute to quit smoking, in the flu season, the elderly should be less to go to crowded public places.
In the elderly and infirm, the elderly are often prone to respiratory infections by influenza vaccination to prevent influenza, pneumococcal vaccine to prevent pneumonia occurred.