Pneumonia is the most common infectious diseases of a multiple, can be life threatening. World Health Organization report pointed out that in the global cause of morbidity and cause of death disease, lower respiratory tract infections (mainly pneumonia) were classified as high-risk disease. China in Beijing and other cities 60 years old or older, a survey found that 26% of the risk of common diseases pneumonia. Elderly high mortality of pneumonia due to chronic diseases. , Pneumonia or children under the age of 5 primary cause of death.
Pneumococcal infection is the most common
Very complex pathogen causing pneumonia, including bacteria, viruses, mycoplasma variety. Pneumonia caused by pneumococcus are the most common, and 83%, in the first place. Worldwide, 5% -10% of healthy adults and 20% -40% of healthy children carry pneumococcus. Pneumococcal generally sojourn in the normal nasopharynx, but most virulence or pathogenicity very low. The pneumococcal Can pathogenic, mainly depending on the bacterial invasion ability of organizations and body resistance.
When the decline of the human immune system, such as the common cold, tired, suffering from chronic bronchitis, chronic heart disease, long-term smoking, pneumococcal will invade the human body, causing pneumonia, and otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis, endocarditis, septicemia disease.
In the three cases, the most likely occurrence of pneumonia. First, upper respiratory tract infection. Virus infection can destroy the integrity of the bronchial mucosa, affecting the mucus and cilia activity, resulting in bacterial infections. Followed by sudden cold, hunger, fatigue, drunkenness, systemic resistance weakened, likely to cause the onset. Is suffering from some chronic diseases, such as immune deficiency, diabetes, heart and kidney failure.
Pneumonia, the most common symptoms include chills, fever, chest pain, cough, sputum, shortness of breath, coughed up sputum purulent sputum or bloody sputum, and can be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms.
The elderly and children are most likely to get pneumonia
In patients with pneumonia, the elderly and children. Their common characteristic is low immunity, performance after they got pneumonia and other crowd is also quite different, the elderly and children should pay special attention to the symptoms of pneumonia.
Most elderly have pneumonia without fever, no chest pain, but there was a slight cough, cold extremities, difficulty in breathing, slow heartbeat, blood pressure drops, little attention will shock the rescue is not timely and likely to die. Many elderly pneumonia first manifested as gastrointestinal discomfort, such as loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension and diarrhea, performance occult difficult to grasp, very dangerous.
The children got pneumonia because of the limited ability to express, parents may suspect that other diseases and delay treatment. Children’s symptoms from mild to severe, generally beginning fever, cough, shortness of breath, severe visible nose flap, to nod like breathing and nasal, lip and bruising around looking schungite children with severe, pale; Some also have vomiting, diarrhea; There will irritability, listlessness, unconscious sleep, moaning.
Governance pneumonia use of antibiotics
Confirmed pneumonia to go through medical auscultation, blood tests, chest X-ray film, and so on. Patients with pneumonia, chest X-ray showed patchy patchy infiltrative shadows, and some will have a pleural effusion.
Treatment for pneumonia treatment resistant pathogens, the key is to correct and rational use of antibiotics. Antibiotic treatment should be for 14 days. Is not right, either no effect or may cause drug resistance. In addition, in recent years, due to pneumococcal varying degrees of resistance to antibiotics, for the treatment of pneumonia brought difficulties. Treatment of pneumonia, but also the treatment of the original disease, improve the immune system, such as diabetes, cancer patients with pneumonia, should actively control the original disease. Furthermore, to ensure adequate intake of calories, nutrients, proteins, etc., expectorant, antipyretic analgesic, etc. is also very important to maintain the water and electrolyte balance in the body.
Pneumonia recovery needs home care
Home care is very important to the recovery of patients with pneumonia. Fever patients to bed rest, keep warm, keep indoor air clean, eat more high-calorie, high-protein, easily digestible food. Chest pain patients is best to take affected side lying or the wide tape securely ipsilateral thorax, the aim is to reduce the thorax activities to relieve pain, cough, take a deep breath, hand or pillow pressed chest wall, also reduce pain.
One thing is very important for patients with pneumonia, cough and expectoration is to pay attention to. Cough, expectoration on the body to play the role of self-purification and protection, therefore, can not blindly cough in patients with pneumonia, should encourage patients every 1 hour to carry out a deep breath and effective cough, bedridden patients should pay attention to turn over, family members of patients every four hours should be The patient shot back expectoration 1. The elderly and infirm, and the family should pay special attention to observe the changes in the patient’s condition, especially in the early stages, 24 hours, to pay attention to its general condition, such as breathing, pulse rate, body temperature, blood pressure, etc..
After cure patients should also be noted that during the recovery period to take measures to promote the the body thoroughly rehabilitation, such as increased rest periods; insist on deep breathing exercise to last at least 4-6 weeks, thus reducing the incidence of atelectasis; Also avoid respiratory irritation, such as smoke, dust, chemical droplets; much as possible to avoid going to crowded places or contact with existing respiratory infections in patients.