Keywords: Children mycoplasma pneumonia
The mycoplasma pneumonia belongs to the etiology, diagnosis, pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae pathogen discovery and naming has decades of history. (Small “brother" can also be a late bloomer) With the constant improvement of the development of medical science and the various means of detection, even more comprehensive and in-depth understanding of the physical and chemical characteristics of pathogenic microorganisms, pathogenic mechanism.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a special micro-organisms, parasites in the human oral cavity, parotid, etc.. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is neither viruses nor bacteria, but the range of viruses and bacteria between a microorganism. Mycoplasma pneumonia is also known as primary atypical pneumonia epidemic of SARS and the spring of this year in Beijing, Guangzhou, Hong Kong and other places are two different things. It is the main cause of lower respiratory tract infections in school-age children and adolescents, can be spread by respiratory droplets. Approximately every 4 to 5 years Mycoplasma pneumonia occurs once popular in the past, mainly to the onset of winter and spring. However, in recent years mycoplasma pneumonia infection rate increased year by year, throughout the year can be the disease, the incidence of severe Mycoplasma pneumonia and infant also increased.
The main source of infection of mycoplasma pneumonia patients, the incubation period of 2 to 3 weeks. Unlike infectious atypical pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumonia patients may not be able to find a clear source of infection, because healthy people under normal circumstances can be carriers, can cause the onset of decreased resistance. The main clinical manifestations were fever, body temperature can be as high as 38 ~ 40 ℃, respiratory symptoms array cough, cough, and gradually increased with the course of development. Cough severe airway rupture of small blood vessels bloody sputum, severe cough affect the rest. High in patients with severe hypothermia and systemic symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, anorexia. It is worth noting that some children in addition to respiratory symptoms, but also the performance of other organ system damage, such as hemolytic anemia, myocarditis, hepatitis, and nervous system damage occurs. If the performance appear before respiratory symptoms, easily lead to misdiagnosis. Mycoplasma pneumonia, chest X-ray, lung CT image changes also varied, this is also in line with the naming of the earliest “primary atypical pneumonia", sometimes resembles infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis, sometimes manifested as interstitial pneumonia-like, sometimes difficult to distinguish lung tumors. So popular season experience fever, cough in children, it is necessary to attach importance to the imaging studies, but also attach importance to the pathogenic examination. Existing the specific serological examination methods, Measure mycoplasma antibody, this antibody in the incidence of 1 to 2 weeks, 3 weeks, reached a peak the single blood IgM positive result or two serum antibody increased more than 4 times the diagnosis value. Mycoplasma culture is the “gold standard" culture method is difficult, long-time, high prices, little significance for clinical diagnosis.
By pathogenic characteristics, mycoplasma pneumonia, the choice of antibiotic treatment, the main choice of macrolide antibiotics, such as erythromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin, penicillin, cephalosporins ineffective treatment of mycoplasma pneumonia.
Atelectasis is a common complication of mycoplasma pneumonia, occurred mainly due to airway epithelial necrosis, mucosal edema, inflammatory secretions blocking the airway. The occurrence of this complication in children should be actively using fiberoptic bronchoscopy lavage, lung recruitment as soon as possible.
Since the last two years found that the increase in people suffering from severe mycoplasma pneumonia, and the severe mycoplasma pneumonia isolation to erythromycin treatment effect is poor, the disease progressed rapidly, even shortly after the onset of dyspnea, cyanosis and respiratory failure. Through clinical studies, the performance of severe Mycoplasma pneumonia is caused by the body’s inflammatory response due to mycoplasma infection caused by excessive acute lung injury, multiple organ failure. You should choose adrenal corticosteroids and / or gamma globulin treatment in a timely manner, blocking the rapid development of the pathological process of inflammation.
Mycoplasma pneumonia in the aftermath of the problem is due to the serious damage of the disease, resulting in airway completely repair of lung tissue has not caused, has gradually attracted people’s attention. The aftermath of the most serious problems is the emergence of diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary failure. Abroad have carried out the implementation of lung transplantation, lung failure patients with a history of mycoplasma pneumonia secondary to bronchiolitis obliterans. The other sequelae problems There recurrent respiratory tract infections, such as bronchial asthma.
Mycoplasma pneumonia is a common disease of children mycoplasma pneumonia contagious infectious atypical pneumonia strong, but severe infections aftermath of infectious atypical pneumonia is very serious. Therefore seize the timing of treatment, and to take decisive comprehensive treatment, can effectively curb the development of the disease, significantly reduced the aftermath of the problem, this is our new understanding of Mycoplasma pneumonia.