[Abstract] Objective by detecting PCDGF in breast cancer, breast fibroids expression and commonly used in clinical pathology indicators initial to explore PCDGF targeted therapy in breast cancer diagnosis and biological significance. The method immunohistochemical assay PCDGF test its relevance in breast cancer, the breast fibroma expression of p53, c  erbB  2 expression in breast cancer, statistically. Results PCDGF expressed in the majority of breast cancer tissue and almost no expression in breast fibroids Expression of PCDGF expression with tumor type p53, ER / PR expression correlation, c  erbB  2 expression was no significant correlation. Conclusion PCDGF can be used as one of the markers to help diagnose breast cancer, and to participate in the proliferation and differentiation of breast cancer, may be an effective target for breast biological targeted therapies.

Key words growth factor; breast cancer; tumor markers

 Expression of PCDGF in Breast Cancer

    SONG Hai  ping, SHI Lan, LIU Chun  ping, HUANG Tao

    Thyroid and Breast Surgical Center Union Hospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China

    Corresponding Author: HUANG Tao, E  mail: huangtaowh@163.comAbstract: Objective To evaluate the expression of PCDGF in breast cancer and breast adenofibroma and to compare with other commonly used clinical pathological index, and then to investigate the diagnositic and targetted therapeutic purpose of PCDGF in breast cancer tissues. Methods We detected the expression of PCDGF, p53 and cerbB  2 in breast cancer tissue and the expression of PCDGF in breast adenofibroma tissue by immunohistochemical method, and took statistics to analyze the association between them. Results PCDGF expressed in most breast cancer tissues, but there was no expression in breast adenofibroma tissue almostly, and the expression of PCDGF was related with tumor’s pathological category and expression of ER / PR and p53, but there was no statistical dependence between PCDGF and cerbB  2. Conclusion PCDGF might be a marker in assistanting diagnosis of breast cancer.It might participate in the generation and differentiation of breast cancer cell, and could come to be an effect therapy target in breast cancer.

    Key words: Growth factor; Breast carcinoma; Tumor markers

 Breast cancer is a serious threat to women’s health malignancy incidence rate of 3%, with the improvement of living standards, increased year by year, more than Europe and the United States and other countries, the incidence rate of breast cancer in Shanghai. How early diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer is critical to improve the long-term breast cancer survival.

    Growth of the occurrence and development of breast cancer cells with a series of regulation of cell growth and differentiation factor closely related to [1], especially in the occurrence and development of breast cancer, such as IGF, EGF plays an autocrine role in promoting tumor invasion and metastasis. PCDGF (PC  cell  derived growth factor, progranulin) is the molecular weight of a tumor cell autocrine growth factor 88kD cysteine-rich, combined with IGFR promote tumor invasion and metastasis, more noticeable When a part of the tumor cells in the absence of IGFR If there PCDGF, the lack of IGF other growth factors such as growth of tumor cells will not be affected, while in the absence of PCDGF even IGFR no lack, the tumor cells can not grow in [2]. PCDGF as a tumor autocrine growth factor is tumor growth and proliferation indispensable. In the breast, PCDGF, also mediates the estrogen ER (+) breast cancer cell mitotic activity and Mosey phenol resistance [3]. For, PCDGF may be an effective target for treatment of breast cancer biological targeting.

    This paper PCDGF expression in breast cancer and analyze expression of PCDGF breast, combined with common clinicopathological parameters to investigate the biological behavior of breast cancer and the possibility of biological targeted therapeutic targets.

    1 Materials and Methods

    1.1 Data

    119 patients with breast cancer and breast fibroid patients in our hospital from January 2004 to December surgical patients, 10 cases of breast fibroids outside the breast tissue as normal breast tissue controls were female, aged 27 to 59 years after the operation and has been detected histopathologically confirmed ER, PR.

    1.2 SP immunohistochemistry to detect targeting PCDGF, p53, and c  erbB  2 expression

    The same case to do 3 the slice were detected three indicators. The antibody acrogranin (N  19) Santa Cruz products, p53 and c  erbB  2 a anti by immunohistochemistry Department of Tongji Medical College. The Beijing Zhongshan streptomycin avidin staining kit staining method with reference to its instructions strictly  peroxidase (SP), the antibody concentration of 1: 200. The use of the microwave antigen thermal repair, for antigen retrieval solution pH 6.0 citrate buffer solution, PBS buffer as negative control antibody was replaced by DAB color, stained with hematoxylin contrast, mounted with neutral gum.

    1.3 statistical methods

    Χ2 test, P <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

    2 Results

    2.1 PCDGF expression in breast cancer and breast fibroids and normal breast tissue

    Observe the expression of 119 cases of breast cancer and 20 cases of breast fibroma patients PCDGF The results show PCDGF expression in the majority of breast cancer patients (75.63%), as shown in Figure 1. Only 1 case in patients with breast fibroma expression in normal breast organization had no PCDGF the expression, breast cancer PCDGF’s expression was significantly higher than the breast tumor and normal breast tissue.

    The 2.2 PCDGF expression in breast pathology correlation

    102 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma and 17 cases of lobular carcinoma, respectively, selected according to the type of tumor pathology the detection expression of PCDGF, results showed the positive expression rate (79.41%) was higher than that in the cases of invasive ductal carcinoma lobular carcinoma positive expression rate (52.94 %).

    The 2.3 PCDGF the expression of p53 expression

    Detection the same cases slice PCDGF and p53 expression, respectively, the results show that p53 expression cases of its PCDGF expression rate (84.62%) was higher than that of p53-negative group (68.66%), see Table 1.

    The 2.4 PCDGF expression of c  erbB  2 expression

    The correlation between the results of analysis expression of PCDGF and c  erbB  2 expression was no significant difference between the two, as shown in Table 1.

    2.5 PCDGF expression of ER, PR expression:

    The results showed that According to the the Pathology ER, PR results in the analysis of different ER / PR cases PCDGF expression, the ER / PR negative group PCDGF, higher than the positive group are shown in Table 1. Table of 1 PCDGF expression in breast cancer and with common pathology indicators

    3 Discussion

    3.1 the evaluation PCDGF as the value of the diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer detection indicators

    The results of this study show a significantly higher expression in breast cancer patients PCDGF, so difficult to diagnose pathological patients to detect the expression of PCDGF qualitative diagnosis of breast cancer patients is very helpful. But PCDGF expression in the serum is very low, the majority can not be detected. Thus difficult as indicators of breast cancer screening and early diagnosis. Joint detection of The qualitative diagnosis will help PCDGF and commonly used indicators of the biology of breast cancer detection and prognosis. The results of this study are also related to the expression of PCDGF the type of breast cancer cases, apoptosis, hormone dependent. Therefore PCDGF would be a good breast qualitative diagnostic and prognostic indicators.

    The 3.2 PCDGF impact on the shape of the breast cancer biology

    Proliferation, differentiation, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer.

    In breast cancer, the level of estrogen receptor, p53, c  erbB  2 is important to evaluate the biological behavior of breast cancer biological indicators. Some studies have shown that ER and PR negative breast cancer have a higher proliferative activity [4], this study shows PCDGF expression of ER, PR expression was negatively correlated with cell lines results in accordance with this rule [5] . Therefore speculate, Expression of PCDGF expression was positively correlated with proliferative activity may be related to breast cancer. The p53 gene mutation is the evaluation of breast cancer is an important indicator of the degree of malignancy and prognosis, and PCDGF expression of p53 gene expression was positively correlated. Whether the internal relations of the degree of malignancy of PCDGF expression in breast yet to be confirmed, but PCDGF at least can be used as an indicator to evaluate the degree of malignancy of breast cancer and the prognosis.

    The 3.3 PCDGF as biological targets for targeted therapy

    Biological targeted therapy is a new direction for future cancer treatment, is today one of the hot. However, the biological effects of targeted therapy is not ideal, the biological treatment target selection is the key to improve the therapeutic effect. Tumor formation is the result of abnormal regulation of more than one part of a multi-step, select many links a site and did not block tumor growth. In recent years, more and more scholars noted that growth factor from the start, select a valid target, regulate the growth of the tumor, which is the most studied of EGFR  1 [6,7]. PCDGF can promote the growth of tumor cells in combination with EGFR  1, but of EGFR  not PCDGF unique receptor. Accordingly, we speculated: PCDGF may regulate the growth of tumor cells, the source of links or independent link. The therefore PCDGF new effective biological treatment of breast cancer therapeutic target.